The endothelial glycocalyx is a microscopically thin gel-like layer that coats the entire luminal side of the vascular endothelium. It is the key to endothelial health because it prevents cholesterol and other particles from adhering to or penetrating the endothelial wall.
Its functions in vascular and micro-vascular health include:
- Regulates vascular permeability and fluid balance due to the large size and negative charge of its glycosaminoglycans2,3
- Provides a physical barrier against inadvertent adhesion of platelets and leukocytes to the vascular wall4
- Regulates coagulation as many of mediators of coagulation pathway are buried inside the glycocalyx under normal physiological condition5
- Functions as a mechano-sensor and transducer of the shear-force inside blood vessels to regulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in response to the blood flow
Arterosil contains rhamnan sulfate, a specialized sulfated polysaccharide derived from the green seaweed Monostroma nitidum. Rhamnan sulfate is a glycocalyx regenerating compound (GRC) and has been reported to possess anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity13.
The rhamnan sulfate found in Arterosil has a similar chemical structure to heparan sulfate found abundantly in human endothelial glycocalyx, and may exert its biological activities by regenerating endothelial glycocalyx.