Gaétan Chevalier, Ph.D.*, and James L. Oschman, Ph.D.**

*University of Montréal Polytechnic School, Engineering Physics, 1988. ** University of Pittsburgh, Biological Sciences, 1965

Table of Contents

Part 1 Earthing and Electricity


Conductors and Insulators

Different Forms of Electricity

Direct Current (DC)

Alternating Current (AC)


Part 2 Questions about Earthing and Safety

Can the Ground Be Used as a Power Line Return and Harm People Who are in Contact with the Ground?

Does Grounding Affects Electric Fields Around You?

Does the Grounded Body Act Like an Antenna?

Does Grounding Amid High Electric Fields Put You at Risk of a Shock?

What are the Biological Effects of EMFs?

Do Earthing Products Have a Built-in Safety Factor?



Part 1: Earthing and Electricity


Walking barefoot on Earth improves well-being, a phenomenon increasingly backed by scientific research. Studies reveal that connecting with the Earth's natural electrical charge and rhythms enhances bodily functions. This connection offers a steady flow of electrons, providing significant antioxidant effects that combat chronic inflammation, a root cause of many prevalent health issues.

For those instances when direct contact with the Earth isn't feasible, various conductive indoor solutions have been designed for both convenience and comfort. Options include specially made bed linens, floor mats for work or relaxation areas, and wearable items like body bands and patches.

As detailed in the 2014 publication "Earthing: The Most Important Health Discovery Ever!", over fifteen years of research and observations suggest that increased conductive contact with the Earth, be it indoors or outdoors, correlates with improved health. This practice is known as Earthing or grounding.

The global Society for Barefoot Living champions the health advantages of going shoeless, arguing that many foot and back issues stem partly from the unnatural stresses imposed by footwear (we recommend shoes like Xero Shoes.) This perspective is supported by biomechanical research, suggesting that barefoot living aligns more closely with human body design.

A separate line of research into Earthing explores how the Earth’s electrodynamic surface impacts our bioelectrical selves, leading to notable, beneficial physiological changes. This body of work, along with extensive feedback, forms the basis of the Earthing hypothesis: that the Earth, as a natural source of electrons and subtle electrical fields, is essential for health.

Biomedical research has linked chronic inflammation with various chronic diseases and aging. Earthing research demonstrates that grounding to the Earth can significantly reduce or prevent chronic inflammation.

The Earthing hypothesis also points to modern lifestyle changes, such as the switch from leather-soled to rubber and plastic footwear since the 1960s, as a factor disconnecting us from the Earth’s beneficial electrical fields. Historically, humans walked barefoot or wore leather footwear, which, when moist from sweat, formed a conductive path for electrons from the Earth. In contrast, rubber and plastic act as insulators, disrupting this beneficial flow.

Additionally, our living and working environments further insulate us from these natural electrical phenomena. Many people reside or work in elevated buildings, far removed from direct contact with the Earth, surrounded by omnipresent electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from technology and electrical wiring.

This page addresses Earthing's safety concerns amid environments laden with man-made EMFs, confirming that Earthing poses no harm. On the contrary, it's beneficial. Confusion around this topic partly arises from new research perspectives requiring a reevaluation of basic electrical and magnetic principles as they apply to physiology and medicine, highlighting the distinction between conductors, insulators, and the impact of EMFs.

Conductors and Insulators

Metals, like copper, are conductors of electricity. This means they have free electrons that can move electric energy from one location to another. When you flip a light switch, electrical energy travels through wires to a bulb, where it's transformed into light.

The human body also conducts electricity, as it is rich in charged ions or electrolytes, found in fluids outside the cells and in the blood. This allows for the easy movement of free electrons throughout the body.

In contrast, insulators have few free electrons. Materials such as plastic, wood, and rubber are used as insulators to prevent unwanted flow of electric currents. They safeguard against electric currents reaching areas where they could be harmful or cause damage. For instance, electric cables are coated with insulative materials to prevent the conductive cores from touching each other, which could lead to a short circuit, and to protect you from electric shocks.

Different Forms of Electricity

Our environment harbors three types of electricity: Direct Current (DC), Alternating Current (AC), and Static Electricity, each capable of influencing our sensations and feelings. While our primary focus lies on the effects and presence of DC and AC electricity, it's crucial to acknowledge the impact of static electricity as well. Notably, Earthing offers a means to dissipate static charges, thereby neutralizing its potential effects alongside those of DC and AC electricity.

Direct Current (DC)

The Earth's surface is the most negatively charged element in our immediate vicinity, hosting an almost infinite and perpetually replenished supply of free electrons. This invisible electron pool is dynamic, influenced by various factors including solar and lunar activity, atmospheric processes, and terrestrial phenomena. These electrons contribute to a stable Direct Current (DC) electric field, integral to the Earth's global electrical circuit. For a deeper dive into the Earth's electrodynamic properties, Gaétan Chevalier's work, "The Earth’s Electrical Surface Potential: A Summary of Present Understanding," offers insightful analysis.

Grounding or earthing aligns your body's electrical potential with that of the Earth by absorbing these free electrons. This alignment is not new; life forms, including humans, have evolved in sync with this natural electrical environment.

A practical example of DC application is seen in batteries, such as those in a flashlight. When activated, chemical reactions within the batteries prompt electrons to move towards the bulb, transforming electrical energy into light, illustrating the flow and function of DC electricity in everyday use.

Alternating Current (AC)

Alternating Current (AC) is artificially produced electricity that generates Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) across a broad spectrum of frequencies, from about 50 Hertz (Hz) to 18 Gigahertz. This range encompasses the frequencies used for residential and commercial power, as well as for technologies like cell phones, WiFi, and microwave ovens. The potential health implications of these frequencies have prompted considerable research. For insights into the biological impacts of EMFs, see the discussion in Part 2 on the biological effects of EMFs.

AC is generated by power plants and distributed to communities through wires, either suspended overhead or buried underground. Unlike Direct Current (DC), where electrons flow in one direction, in AC systems, electrons oscillate back and forth. This oscillation occurs 60 times per second in North America (60Hz) and 50 times per second in Europe (50Hz), essentially vibrating without moving forward. In a typical lamp cord operating on AC, electrons don't flow but rather vibrate in place with such a tiny amplitude that it would be almost invisible, even under a microscope magnifying 10,000 times.

Over a century ago, AC was selected as the preferred method for transmitting electric power over long distances due to its efficiency. The motion initiated by generators, akin to an electron dance, travels nearly at light speed along the wire to power our devices, even though the electrons themselves might never leave their original positions. In fact, the electrons in your home's wiring could be the same ones there since its construction.

This clarifies a common misunderstanding that electrons must travel from power plants to homes and back to generate electricity. In reality, with AC, it's the vibrational motion, not the physical relocation of electrons, that transmits energy to our homes. No electron needs to depart and return to the power plant for electricity generation, debunking the myth that such a process is a fundamental physical principle.


In our modern environment, the wiring in homes, buildings, and across power grids essentially serves as an antenna capable of both emitting and receiving various natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The proliferation of contemporary technologies significantly amplifies the electromagnetic landscape, including but not limited to cell phone masts, WiFi networks, wireless routers, satellite television, and cordless phones. Moreover, numerous devices introduce electrical disturbances or transients into the 60Hz or 50Hz electric field within wiring systems, especially when activated or deactivated. Examples of such devices include:

  • Fluorescent lighting ballasts
  • Energy-efficient lighting, like CFL bulbs
  • Computer hard drives
  • Electric heaters
  • Hair dryers
  • Refrigerators and air conditioners
  • Vacuum cleaners
  • Light dimmer switches

Consider, for instance, the electrical "spike" generated when a neighbor’s air conditioner or refrigerator turns on or off. This spike propels through the power lines to your home's electrical system and emits into the surroundings, given the wiring's function as a transmission antenna. Collectively, these signals and alterations to the AC field generate what is often termed as "dirty electricity," essentially electromagnetic "noise" produced by everyday operation of electrical appliances.

There has been extensive debate and research into the potential health impacts of these phenomena, with "electromagnetic pollution" frequently implicated in cases of "electrosensitivity." While some individuals are highly sensitive to EMFs, experiencing adverse health effects, most people do not exhibit such sensitivity.

The question of whether these electromagnetic fields are detrimental to health remains contentious among researchers, who are exploring the potential biological mechanisms affected by these fields.

However, the effect of Earthing or grounding on mitigating any potential harm from these fields is unequivocal. Earthing stabilizes the human body's electrical environment, reducing interference much like the grounding of electrical systems and electronic devices shields against internal electromagnetic interference.

Over time, we've received feedback from individuals identifying as "electro-sensitive," many of whom have experienced stress-related adrenal weakness, potentially exacerbating their sensitivity. Earthing has been reported to alleviate some of their symptoms. Yet, the primary benefit of Earthing lies in the absorption of the Earth's electrons, offering numerous health advantages as documented in research, including enhanced immune function, sleep quality, and reduced inflammation, amongst others.

Part 2: Earthing and Safety

Is it possible for the Earth to serve as a return path for electrical power, posing a risk to individuals in direct contact with the ground?

Concerns have been raised about the potential risks of coming into direct contact with the Earth, whether by walking barefoot outdoors or using Earthing products indoors. These worries stem from the practice of electric power companies utilizing the Earth itself as a part of the alternating current (AC) circuit's return path, supposedly to reduce the costs associated with additional wiring to accommodate the growing demand for electricity.

However, these concerns are based on two misunderstandings regarding the single wire earth return (SWER) system.

The first misunderstanding is the belief that SWER is commonly employed even in densely populated regions, which is not accurate. In reality, SWER is primarily utilized in rural and isolated areas, such as parts of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and under specific conditions, in the U.S., as well as in several developing countries like Brazil, India, and Laos, and some African regions. The U.S. National Electrical Code explicitly prohibits using the Earth as the sole return path, mandating a metallic (neutral) return wire from electrical loads back to the power source, with the ground used only under special exceptions approved by local authorities.

The second misunderstanding concerns the fear of receiving an electric shock from ground currents if one is barefoot or using grounding equipment. This fear is largely unfounded, except in the rare instance of being extremely close to an earth point in a SWER system, a situation most people are unlikely to encounter.

While SWER offers cost benefits, it comes with drawbacks, including significant power losses in areas with high soil resistance, voltage fluctuations due to long distances between poles, and the potential for surges and deficits in power supply depending on demand. A critical concern is the high ground current near the earth point of a SWER system, which necessitates effective grounding methods to mitigate risk, although these situations are rare and typically located in remote areas.

The U.S. National Electrical Code also stipulates safety measures like circuit breakers or fuses to handle short circuits, preventing harm or damage, and requires grounding connections to manage voltages during unusual conditions like lightning strikes or power line issues. While not legally binding, adherence to the electrical code is enforced by insurance companies and regulatory bodies in the U.S., with non-compliance posing legal risks.

Does Grounding influence the electric fields in your vicinity?

Most environments, whether outdoors or indoors, contain electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Grounding yourself in such places leads to an increased AC electric field in your immediate surroundings. This happens because your grounded body acts as a shield, especially against low-frequency fields (below 100,000 Hz). Consequently, electric fields that would have penetrated your body are instead reflected outward, amplifying the electric field strength around you.

This clarification addresses concerns raised by some individuals who argue that Earthing could be detrimental due to the heightened 50/60 Hz electric field around a grounded person. Indeed, measurements with an electric field meter or an EMF power meter will show an increased field around the body. However, this phenomenon is simply an outcome of the body's shielding effect. Importantly, the 50/60 Hz field inside the body does not increase; it significantly and instantly diminishes upon grounding, almost disappearing. It's akin to being within a protective shield. Through grounding, you essentially integrate with the Earth's natural electric potential, creating what can be described as an "umbrella effect" in electromagnetic terms.

Does a Person that is Grounded Act as an Antenna?

Critics of Earthing sometimes suggest that grounding turns the body into an antenna that attracts environmental EMFs, potentially leading to harmful effects.

However, for an antenna to function effectively, it must not be grounded. A grounded antenna is ineffective because it aligns with the Earth’s potential, causing its electrons to become unresponsive to external EMFs. Instead of acting as a receiver, the antenna, much like a grounded body, is protected and causes EMFs to be reflected away, demonstrating what is referred to as "the umbrella effect."

Although the body can conduct electricity and thus could theoretically act as an antenna (specifically, a receiver rather than a transmitter) when it is not grounded, the concept of actively "drawing in" EMFs does not hold up. Neither conductors nor insulators have the capacity to attract EMFs. An ungrounded antenna only interacts with EMFs when these fields directly impact it, not due to any attraction or pulling effect exerted by the antenna itself.

Does Grounding Near High Electric Fields Put You at Risk of a Shock?

Critics of Earthing have raised concerns about grounding oneself in environments with ungrounded or unprotected electrical sources, like those from ungrounded appliances, fearing that one's body might become the path of least resistance to the ground, risking an electric shock. They suggest it's wiser to disconnect or ground such appliances and switch off unnecessary circuit breakers to reduce ambient electrical voltages.

Yet, these concerns are unfounded. The notion of "unshielded or ungrounded electricity" roaming freely in the air, capable of conducting through a grounded body, is a misconception. EMFs, by their nature, consist of electric and magnetic fields, not electrons, and thus cannot generate electric currents independently. While EMFs can cause electrons within conductors, including the human body, to oscillate, this effect does not translate into the creation of new electric currents that could increase shock risk, thanks to the "umbrella effect." When grounded, the body's electrons are not influenced by external EMFs in a manner that would increase shock risk.

Comparisons between grounding in the presence of EMFs and the danger of electrocution from touching a live wire are also misguided. EMFs in the environment do not pose the same risk as direct contact with live electrical sources. Additionally, Earthing products typically include a 100k ohm resistor to limit current flow, similar to a kink in a hose reducing water flow, thereby preventing electric shock in case of accidental contact with live electricity.

Our research consistently shows that grounding offers benefits regardless of ambient EMF levels where studies were conducted. Unplugging appliances or cutting off household electricity has no bearing on Earthing's effectiveness.

However, for those looking to reduce EMF exposure, starting with minimizing electrical devices and wiring in sleeping areas can be beneficial, as these locations often have the highest electric fields. While some individuals opt to turn off their home's power, this measure is not always practical.

For detailed information on body voltage generation and identifying sources, refer to this guide on measuring Earthing's impact on body voltage from Gaétan Chevalier.

What are the Biological Effects of EMFs?

The debate over the biological impact of environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) remains contentious. Some experts assert that both magnetic and electric fields can influence health, while others argue the evidence is insufficient to draw such conclusions.

In our modern environment, human-made electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous, spanning from the extremely low frequency (ELF, greater than 0 up to 300 Hz) to the radio frequency (RF, 100 kHz to 300 GHz) bands, with the intermediate frequency (IF) band lying in between. Electrical power systems (50–60 Hz) represent the lower frequency end, whereas cell phones (900 MHz and 1,800 MHz) and microwave ovens (2.45 GHz) are on the higher frequency side. These frequencies are categorized as non-ionizing radiation, lacking the energy to dislodge electrons from atoms or disrupt chemical bonds within the body.

Contrastingly, the higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum (above 300 GHz), known as ionizing radiation, possess sufficient energy to eject electrons from atoms and break chemical bonds, encompassing infrared radiation, visible light, UV radiation, x-rays, and gamma-rays. The potential of ionizing radiation to damage living tissues is well acknowledged.

There are recognized biophysical mechanisms that suggest health effects may arise from exposure to strong fields. For frequencies up to 100 kHz, health impacts are primarily due to nerve and muscle cell stimulation from induced currents in and on the body, while at higher frequencies, the main concern is tissue heating (thermal effect). The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have set guidelines for safe exposure levels. Yet, new studies have shown effects on living tissues at levels below those that cause thermal stimulation, challenging these guidelines.

Advocating for "prudent avoidance," we suggest minimizing EMF exposure where possible, pending more conclusive scientific evidence. In this vein, Earthing has been shown to significantly reduce the intrusion of many EMFs, such as those at 50-60 Hz, into the body, as demonstrated by voltmeter experiments discussed in Gaétan Chevalier's research on the effects of Earthing on body voltage.

Nevertheless, the mitigation of EMFs' effects is not the primary benefit of Earthing. The efficacy of Earthing against higher frequency EMFs, like those from cell phones and Wi-Fi, has yet to be evaluated by research. Without concrete evidence regarding Earthing's protective capabilities against these higher frequencies, minimizing exposure remains a cautious approach, especially for those highly sensitive to EMFs. Earthing can support optimal metabolic functioning and recovery from injuries, highlighting its value beyond EMF protection.


The primary health advantage of Earthing lies in its capacity to enrich the body with electrons directly from the Earth. Emerging scientific evidence and theories on Earthing suggest a significant influence on reducing inflammation through electron transfer.

Research indicates that grounded individuals experience lower physiological stress levels and exhibit signs of relaxation. This includes a transition from sympathetic to parasympathetic nervous system activation, a decrease in muscle tension, and enhanced heart rate variability. Independent of Earthing's potential to lessen environmental field impacts, the evidence clearly shows that Earthing does not increase bodily stress. On the contrary, it diminishes all stress indicators used in research.

Earthing represents an under-recognized aspect of public health, potentially acting as a crucial missing element with extensive positive consequences. Reconnecting with Earthing has led numerous individuals to report significant health improvements across a broad spectrum of conditions. People suffering from various inflammatory disorders, including severe autoimmune diseases, have seen benefits.

While Earthing is not labeled as a "treatment" or "cure" for any specific illness, it is undeniable that the bioelectric nature of the human body has historically been sustained by the Earth's natural "battery." Our modern way of life has disrupted this essential connection, posing a risk to our health.


  • Ober, C., Sinatra, S.T., and Zucker, M., 2014. Earthing: The most important discovery ever! (Second edition) Basic Health Publications, Inc., Laguna Beach, CA.
  • Bergmann, G., Kniggendorf, H., Graichen, F., Rohlmann, A., 1995. Influence of shoes and heel strike on the loading of the hip joint. Journal of Biomechanics 28, 817–827; Burkett, L.N., Kohrt, M., Buchbinder, R., 1985. Effects of shoes and foot orthotics on VO2 and selected frontal plane kinematics. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 17, 158–163; Flaherty, R.F., 1994. Running Economy and Kinematic Differences Among Running with the Foot Shod, with the Foot Bare, and with the Bare Foot Equated for Weight. Microform Publications, International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon; Robbins, S.E., Gouw, G.J., 1990. Athletic footwear and chronic overloading: a brief review. Sports Medicine 9, 76–85; Robbins, S.E., Gouw, G.J., 1991. Athletic footwear: unsafe due to perceptual illusions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 23, 217–224; Robbins, S.E., Hanna, A.M., 1987. Running-related injury prevention through barefoot adaptations. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 19 (2), 148–156; Robbins, S., Gouw, G., McClaran, J., Waked, E., 1993. Protective sensation of the plantar aspect of the foot. Foot and Ankle 14, 347–352; Siff, M.C., Verkhoshansky, Y.V., 1999. Supertraining, fourth ed. Supertraining International, Denver, Colorado.
  • Oschman, J.L., Chevalier, G.,  Brown, R. (2015) The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Journal of Inflammation Research, in press. Ober, A.C., Coghill, R.W., 2003. Does grounding the human body to Earth reduce chronic inflammation and related chronic pain? Presented at the European Bioelectromagnetics Association annual meeting, November 12, 2003, Budapest, Hungary; Oschman, J.L., 2007. Review and commentary: electrons as antioxidants. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 13(8):995-967;  Applewhite, R., 2005. Effectiveness of a Conductive Patch and a Conductive Bed Pad in reducing induced human body voltage via the application of Earth ground. European Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 11/03/2005 issue, pp. 23–40; Chevalier, G., Mori, K., Oschman, J.L., 2006. The Effect of Earthing (grounding) on Human Physiology. European Biology and Bioelectromagnetics 31/01/2006 issue, pp. 600–621; Chevalier, G., and Mori, I., The effect of Earthing on human physiology. Part 2: Electrodermal measurements. Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine 18(3):11-34; Ghaly, M., Teplitz, D., 2004. The biological effects of grounding the human body during sleep, as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain and stress. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 10, 767–776; Brown, D., Chevalier, G., Hill, M., 2010. Pilot Study on the Effect of Grounding on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness. The Journal of Alternative and complementary Medicine 16(3):1-9; Chevalier G. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for forty minutes. J Altern Complement Med 2010;1:81–87; Oschman, J.L., 2009. Charge transfer in the living matrix. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 13, 215–228; Oschman, J.L., 2008. Perspective: assume a spherical cow: the role of free or mobile electrons in bodywork, energetic and movement therapies. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 12, 40–57; Oschman, J.L. and Kosovich, J., 2008. Energy Medicine and Matrix Regeneration. Chapter 26 in Anti-Aging Therapeutics, Volume X, Edited by Klatz, R. and Goldman, R., American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine, Chicago IL, pp. 203-210.
  • Oschman, J.L., 2009. Charge transfer in the living matrix. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 13, 215–228.
  • Static electricity produces a DC field around our bodies when we are not grounded. Normally the human body and the objects around us have exactly the same number of electrons and protons and are therefore electrically neutral. Static electricity arises when electric charge builds up on the body or clothing and produces large DC fields around the body. For example, when the relative humidity is low, walking across a carpet can develop enough electric charge on your body to produce a potential difference of 35,000 volts between the body and the ground. A urethane foam-padded chair can develop 18,000 volts and a vinyl floor can produce 12,000 volts. When your body becomes electrically charged in this way, you can experience a shock when you reach for a conducting object that possesses a different electric potential compared to the body. A typical example: you walk briskly on a carpet in dry weather and touch a door knob. Even though the voltages produced by static electricity can be very high, much higher than the 120 volts of our home electric power outlet, we are not harmed by them because the number of electrons discharged during a static electric shock is small, meaning the current is very small. Conductive surfaces that are grounded to the Earth cannot build up static charges. Every day millions of workers in the electronics industry are grounded to prevent the build-up of static electricity that could otherwise discharge into sensitive electronics components and damage them.
  • Gaétan Chevalier, The Earth’s Electrical Surface Potential: A Summary of Present Understanding.
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  • Oschman, J.L., Chevalier, G., Ober, A.C. (2015) Biophysics of Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body. In: Rosch, P.J., Ed., Bioelectromagnetic and Subtle Energy Medicine Second Edition, CRC Press, New York, pp 427-448.
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  • Fish, R.M. Conduction of Electrical Current to and Through the Human Body: A Review 2009

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